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注意!這8個日常習慣正在偷偷地傷害你的眼睛!
2018-10-30 10:24:14 來源: 中國日報網
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  Revealed: 8 everyday habits affecting your eye health, from old mascara to smoking

  據世界衛生組織報道,全球約有2.53億人患有各種視力障礙。其實,只要保持健康的衛生習慣,80%的眼病是可以預防或治愈的。下面這些日常習慣要盡量避免,因為你的眼睛會在不知不覺中受到傷害。

  1. Your daily swim

  每天遊泳

  Swimming is hugely beneficial for your cardiovascular system but if you're not wearing goggles, your eyes might be suffering, especially if you're a contact lens wearer and you open your eyes underwater.

  遊泳對心血管係統大有裨益,但如果遊泳時不佩戴護目鏡,雙目可能會因此受損,尤其是在水下睜眼的隱形眼鏡佩戴者。

  'The water in pools, rivers and the sea, or even the shower can leave your eyes vulnerable to bacterial infection,' warns Vision Direct optometrist Brendan O' Brien.
英國隱形眼鏡網店Vision Direct驗光師布蘭登·奧布賴恩警告説:“泳池、河流和大海中的水,甚至是洗澡水都會讓眼睛容易受到細菌感染。”

  'The microorganism acanthamoeba lives in water and can cause serious damage if it gets into your eye'.

  “水中的微生物棘阿米巴原蟲如果進了你的眼睛,會造成嚴重傷害。”

  'Wearing contact lenses makes us more vulnerable because the bacteria attaches to the lens and can cause the surface of your eye to become inflamed and eventually infected,' says O'Brien.

  “佩戴隱形眼鏡讓我們更容易受到傷害,因為這種細菌會粘附在隱形眼鏡上,導致眼睛表面發炎甚至被感染。”

  Contact lenses will also naturally absorb any water around them, which could change their shape dramatically. This will make them uncomfortable to wear, often causing your vision to become distorted and blurry.

  隱形眼鏡還會自然地吸收四周的水分,從而極大改變原有形狀。這會讓隱形眼鏡戴起來不舒適,還會導致視物扭曲模糊。

  If you really must wear your lenses in the pool stick to daily disposables along with waterproof swimming goggles, or better still invest in a pair of prescription goggles which will help you see clearly without water coming in direct contact with your eyes.

  如果你一定要在泳池中佩戴隱形眼鏡,就佩戴日拋隱形鏡片,同時戴上防水護目鏡,如果能佩戴按度數定制的護目鏡更好,既能讓你在水下視野清晰,又不會有水直接接觸眼睛。

  2. Your out of date mascara

  用過期的睫毛膏

  You know how your mascara gets all clumpy after three or four months, but you don't want to buy a new one because that stuff is pricey?

  你知道睫毛膏在使用三四個月後就會凝結成塊嗎?但是就因為睫毛膏價格不菲,你不舍得買新的。

  Well, it's time to cull your make-up bag of all out of date eye make-up, especially mascara, yes even your favorite Chanel one you bought in 2016.

  是時候把你化粧包裏所有過期的眼部化粧品都扔掉了,尤其是睫毛膏,就連你最愛的2016年買入的香奈兒也不例外。

  Mascara can harbor bacteria which can cause infections leading to redness, light sensitivity and irritation and, in rare cases, even blindness. Liquid liner and mascara have a shelf life of around three months once opened.

  睫毛膏會滋生細菌,引發眼部感染,導致眼睛發紅、怕光、不適,極少數情況下甚至可能致盲。液體眼線筆和睫毛膏開封後,保質期約為三個月。

  Unopened, well-formulated cosmetics can remain stable for a couple of years.

  未開封的工藝成熟的化粧品可以在一兩年內保持性能穩定。

  What's more, eye make-up applied inside the eyeline, such as eyeliner, can increase the risk of eye infection, according to research from the University of Waterloo published in the peer-reviewed journal.

  此外,滑鐵盧大學發表在同行評審期刊的研究指出,眼瞼內用的眼部化粧品,比如眼線筆,會增加眼部感染的風險。

  The research by the scientist Dr Alison Ng found that contact lens wearers were more vulnerable to infection from eye make-up. Dr Ng recommends preventing bacterial transfer by sharpening eye pencils thoroughly before each use.

  科學家艾莉森·吳的研究發現,隱形眼鏡佩戴者的眼睛更容易因為眼粧而被感染。吳醫生建議,每次用眼線筆之前都要徹底削幹凈,防止細菌傳播。

  Similarly, false eyelashes could put your eyes at risk. According to experts, false eyelashes are a hygiene risk because they tend to trap dirt and bacteria, while poor quality, unhygienic lashes increase the risk, so it's important to find a reputable beautician.

  同樣,假睫毛也會讓眼睛陷入風險。專家稱,假睫毛不衛生,因為很容易藏污納垢,質量差、不衛生的假睫毛會讓眼睛感染風險增加,所以找口碑好的彩粧品牌很重要。

  3. Skipping your annual eye test

  放棄年度眼睛檢查

  'An eye test can turn up health problems like diabetes, glaucoma and high blood pressure, all of which can lead to serious eye problems and even blindness if left unchecked,' says O'Brien.

  奧布賴恩説:“眼睛檢查可以發現糖尿病、青光眼和高血壓等健康問題,這些毛病如果一直沒有被檢查出來,便可能引發嚴重的眼疾甚至致盲。”

  Even arthritis which causes joint inflammation can be spotted with an eye test, because the inflammation also turns up in the eye and will eventually attack the eye too if left untreated.

  甚至連關節炎都可以通過眼睛檢查發現,因為在眼部也可以察覺到發炎症狀,如果關節炎拖著不治,到最後也會影響到眼睛。

  'Most optometrists recommended taking an eye test every two years, unless you have eye issues or are over 70, in which case, a test every 12 months is best to catch any health problems early,' says O'Brien.

  奧布賴恩説:“多數驗光師建議每兩年檢查一次眼睛,但如果你有眼疾或年過70歲,最好每年檢查一次眼睛,以便盡早發現健康問題。”

  'Children up to the age of 16 should be tested annually too, according to the College of Optometrists, as children's vision can change very rapidly at this stage of their lives.'

  “英國視光師學院建議,16歲以下的孩子每年都應檢查眼睛,因為孩子的視力在這個階段變化很快。”

  4. Staring at your smartphone

  老盯著手機

  Staring at your smartphone or computer screen or TV for hours on end is not good for your eye health, says research by the University of Toledo, published in Scientific Reports.
托雷多大學的研究人員發表在《科學報告》上的報告指出,連續幾個小時盯著智能手機或電腦屏幕、電視對眼睛健康有害無益。

  That's because these screens emit blue light which is absorbed by vital cells in the eye's retina triggering toxic chemicals, which can eventually kill the photoreceptors we need for vision. And the older you get the more vulnerable you are.

  這是因為這些屏幕散發出的藍光會被眼睛視網膜的核心細胞吸收,産生有害化學物質,最終會殺死視覺所依賴的感光細胞。而且,年紀越大,眼睛越容易受到藍光傷害。

  The study's lead researcher Dr Ajith Karunarathne, an assistant professor in the UT department of chemistry and biochemistry says we shouldn't be checking phones and tablets in the dark, because this can dilate the pupils making them more vulnerable to damage.

  該研究的首席研究員、托雷多大學化學和生物化學部的助理教授阿吉斯·卡魯那拉斯尼醫生説, 我們不應該在黑暗中看手機和平板電腦,因為這樣會讓瞳孔放大,眼睛更容易受到藍光損害。

  Dr Karunarathne explains wearing glasses with an anti-glare coating that filters blue light, or adding a blue light filter screen to your phone or computer.

  卡魯那拉斯尼醫生表示,可以佩戴有防眩涂層的眼鏡能過濾掉藍光,或者在手機或電腦上加一個藍光濾光屏。

  5. That casual smoking habit

  抽煙

  We hardly need to say it: smoking is BAD, but few of us realize it damages our eyes. 'Smoking increases risk of cataracts and age related macular degeneration (AMD), which is a common condition that affects the middle part of your vision. In fact, AMD is Britain's leading cause of sight loss.

  抽煙不好,這一點都不用我們説,但很少人意識到抽煙對眼睛有害。“抽煙會增加患白內障和老年黃斑變性的風險,這是影響視野中心視力的常見疾病。事實上,老年黃斑變性是英國人視力缺失的首要誘因。”

  'AMD occurs when the small central portion of the retina, known as the macula, deteriorates and is the major cause of blindness in the over fifties, ' says O' Brien.

  奧布賴恩説:“老年黃斑變性指的是視網膜中央的黃斑惡化,是50歲以上人口失明的首要病因。”

  Risk of AMD doubles with smoking over fifty, says one British study published in The British Journal of Ophthalmology. So that's another reason to sign up for Stoptober.

  發表在《英國眼科學雜志》的一項英國研究稱,年過五十後,吸煙會增加黃斑變性的風險。戒煙又多了個理由。

  6. Forgetting to wear sunglasses

  忘記戴太陽鏡

  You might think your sunnies are no longer needed now that the dark nights are closing in. Not so says O'Brien. UV is still an issue on overcast winter days.

  日短夜長,也許你認為不再需要自己的太陽鏡,但是奧布賴恩卻表示:非也。即使在陰雲密布的冬天,紫外線依然是個問題。

  'Although the UV count is typically higher on sunnier days, it is important to bear in mind that up to 80% of UV radiation can penetrate cloud, meaning that forgetting to wear sunglasses on an overcast day can still damage your eyes,' says O'Brien.

  奧布賴恩説:“盡管晴天紫外線指數通常更高,但你要記住,多達80%的紫外線都可以穿透雲層,這意味著陰天忘記戴太陽鏡依然會對眼睛造成損害。”

  'That means it's just as good an idea to pop on a pair of shades on a sunny December morning as it is on a hot July afternoon.'

  “這意味著在十二月陽光明媚的早上戴太陽鏡和炎熱的七月下午戴太陽鏡一樣有必要。”

  But don't think just because your glasses are dark tinted they offer ultra violet protection. 'The tint of a sunglasses lens has no effect on UV protection,' says O'Brien.

  但不要以為太陽鏡的顏色深就能更好地抵擋紫外線。奧布賴恩説:“太陽鏡片的顏色對于紫外線防護沒有效果。”

  'While wearing darker lenses means that less light will enter your eye and will help you see better, the same amount of UV is blocked as if you were wearing shades with a lighter tint.'

  “佩戴深色太陽鏡片意味著進入眼睛的光更少,你看東西更清楚,但是,深色太陽鏡阻擋的紫外線和淺色鏡片是一樣多的。”

  And unless your sunglasses are offering good UV coverage, the tint means they will dilate your pupils and allow more UV light in than normal, so it's potentially worse than going without sunglasses if your glasses aren't up to scratch.

  而且,如果你的太陽鏡沒有抵擋紫外線的功能,鏡片顏色太深意味著你的瞳孔會放大,進入瞳孔的紫外線會比正常情況下更多,所以如果深色太陽鏡不達標,效果比不戴太陽鏡還糟。

  The message? Don't fall for those designer look-alikes, unless you can verify their UV credentials. 'Look for a CE mark (a European standard of UV protection),' says O'Brien.

  所以呢?不要被那些倣大牌的太陽鏡蒙騙,除非你可以核實它們的紫外線認證信息。奧布賴恩説:“注意看CE産品認證標志(歐洲紫外線防護標準)。”

  Look for styles that fit close to your face and don't let light in at the side and if you're a contacts wearer opt for brands like Acuvue with UV filters included or remember to wear sunglasses with your contact lenses.

  選擇貼合臉型的太陽鏡款式,不要讓光線從側面射入,如果你佩戴的是隱形眼鏡,選擇Acuvue等可以過濾紫外線的品牌,或者在佩戴隱形眼鏡時戴上太陽鏡。

  Warning: Your eyes are even more susceptible to burning than your skin. As it's harder to tell when your eyes are getting burnt than it is when your skin starts turning red, it's easy to end up doing lasting damage to your eyes without knowing.

  警告:眼睛比皮膚更容易被曬傷。眼睛是否曬傷很難辨別,因為眼睛不會像曬傷的皮膚一樣發紅,所以很容易不知不覺就讓眼睛遭到持久損害。

  Frequent exposure to UV can lead to the development of eye conditions such as cataracts and AMD which can impair sight and even cause partial or total blindness.

  頻繁暴露在紫外線下會引發白內障和老年黃斑變性等眼部疾病,這種疾病會損害視力,甚至會導致局部或完全失明。

  Indeed, one systematic review published in 2014 of scientific research on the subject found that sunlight exposure to eyes was a key risk factor in the development of AMD.

  2014年發表的一項對該課題科學研究的係統回顧發現,眼睛暴露在陽光下是導致老年黃斑變性的一個重要風險因素。

  7. Your fan

  電風扇

  Leaving a fan running all night can increase irritation and dry eyes for contact lens wearers. Why? Because fans blow allergens like dust or pollen towards your eyes as you sleep, so that when you insert your lenses in the morning these deposits cause irritation and discomfort.

  整夜開電風扇會加重隱形眼鏡佩戴者的眼睛刺激和發幹症狀。為什麼呢?因為電風扇會在你睡覺時把灰塵或花粉等過敏物吹到你的眼睛裏,你在早上佩戴隱形眼鏡時,這些積存在眼裏的東西會引發刺激和不適。

  The fix? Thoroughly dust bedroom surfaces, including the fan blades and keep a bottle of contact lens solution handy to cleanse your lenses to remove any impurities.

  解決之道就是徹底清理臥室表面的灰塵,包括風扇的葉片,隨時備有隱形眼鏡清洗液,去除隱形眼鏡片上的任何雜質。

  Consider setting a timer on your fan, so it switches off shortly after you doze off and wear a sleep mask, so your eyes are protected.

  考慮給風扇定時,這樣你睡著後不久風扇就會關閉,或者戴睡眠眼罩來保護眼睛。

  8. Over-using eye drops

  過多使用眼藥水

  While it's tempting to reach for the eye drops rather than put up with looking like a pink-eyed bunny, you can have too much of a good thing, say experts, as plenty of eye drops can lead to a rebound effect.

  盡管眼睛紅腫的時候很想用眼藥水,但是再好的東西也不能用太多,專家指出,用太多眼藥水會産生反彈效應。

  Rebound redness results because the blood vessels in the eye dilate as the effects of the medication in the drops wears off, creating a vicious circle. What should we do instead? 'Try to pinpoint the cause and deal with it, ' says O'Brien.

  隨著眼藥水的效力消退,由于眼內血管擴張,眼睛會再度紅腫,並因此産生惡性循環。那我們應該怎麼做呢?奧布賴恩説:“試著找出紅腫原因並對症處理。”

  If, for example, your eyes are dry due to cold winter weather and central heating, invest in a humidifier and try not to sit too close to a radiator.

  比如,如果你的眼睛是因為冬季寒冷和中央供暖係統而發幹,就買一臺加濕器,盡量不要坐得離暖氣片太近。

  Rehydrate by drinking lots of water and eat plenty of foods rich in A, C and E vitamins and omega-3 fats, like salmon. And when the wind starts whistling, don your sunglasses to protect your eyes from the biting cold.

  多喝水補充水分,多吃富含維生素A、C、E和歐米加-3脂肪酸的食物,比如鮭魚。刮風的時候,戴上太陽鏡來保護眼睛不受刺骨寒冷的傷害。

  How often you can use eye drops safely will depend on the type, says O' Brien.

  奧布賴恩説,多長時間使用一次眼藥水才安全,這取決于眼藥水是哪種類型。

  'There are two types: eye drops with preservatives and preservative-free eye drops. Eye drops that contain preservatives have a longer shelf life. The preservatives are chemicals that prevent bacteria from growing. This allows you to use one bottle of eye drops for a length of time.

  “有兩種類型:含有防腐劑的眼藥水和不含防腐劑的眼藥水。含有防腐劑的眼藥水保質期更長。防腐劑是防止細菌滋生的化學物質。這可以讓你長時間使用一瓶眼藥水。”

  'However, the preservatives in OTC eye drops cause eye irritation to become worse. Eye specialists typically recommend that you use this type of eye drop no more than four times a day.' Preservative-free eye drops are best for those with sensitive eyes.

  “但是,非處方眼藥水中的防腐劑會加重眼部刺激。眼科專家通常建議這種眼藥水使用一天不要超過四次。”不含防腐劑的眼藥水適合眼睛敏感的人。

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